Assessment Scales for Advanced Dementia

By Ladislav Volicer, M.D., Ph.D., FAAN, FGSA, and Ann C. Hurley, R.N., D.N.Sc., FAAN

ISBN 978-1-938870-38-5
8.5 x 11 paper
240 pages
© 2015


Stock #: 70385 Categories: ,

Product Description

As internationally recognized pioneers in their field, Drs. Volicer and Hurley have brought critical attention to the unique issues and needs of people in the advanced stages of dementia. In this book, they bring together a culmination of more than 20 years of research on late-stage dementia, providing the best evidence-based measurement scales available for researchers and care providers who are seeking to improve care for people in the final stages of this increasingly prevalent disease.

The 11 scales presented in this book have been proven effective in eliciting meaningful data from study subjects, patients, and long-term care residents whose dementia-related communication difficulties reduce their ability to self-report or respond in traditionally measured ways. With proven reliability and validity, the scales accurately assess the following domains: dementia severity, satisfaction with care, symptom management, comfort during dying, quality of life, activity involvement, discomfort, pain, quality of visits, agitation, and rejection of care.

Careful analyses of each scale includes:

  • a detailed explanation of the concept being measured
  • the original published research article outlining the development and testing of the scale
  • a summary of how the scale has been used by others
  • suggestions on how to use the scale for new research
  • a user-friendly measurement form with complete instructions for use

A quick-reference summary chart of the scales helps researchers and care providers decide which scale is right for their research or intervention goals. All forms are also available as downloadable PDFs.

These carefully selected scales will serve physicians, nurses, psychologists, and other professionals who are planning studies ranging from large-scale randomized controlled trials to the evaluation of unit-based quality improvement programs. This is a unique and indispensable collection for any researcher or practitioner in the dementia care field.

Format: E-book
e-ISBN 978-1-938870-40-8

E-book available through:

Also available through: Baker and Taylor, OverDrive, Gardners, and Follett

About the Authors
List of Contributors
Foreword, by Susan L. Mitchell, M.D., M.P.H.
Foreword, by Jenny T. van der Steen, Ph.D.

I. Research Issues in Advanced Dementia

  1. Methodological Considerations
  2. Severity of Dementia
    Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Scale—Severity Subscale (BANS-S)
  3. End of Life in Dementia (EOLD)
    Satisfaction With Care (SWC-EOLD)
    Symptom Management (SM-EOLD)
    Comfort Assessment in Dying (CAD-EOLD)

II. Assessing Outcomes of Interventions to Promote Well-Being

  1. Quality of Life in Late-Stage Dementia
    Myron F. Weiner, M.D.
    Linda S. Hynan, Ph.D.
    Quality of Life in Dementia (QUALID)
  2. Engagement in Dementia
    Cameron J. Camp, Ph.D.
    Michael J. Skrajner, M.A.
    Gregg J. Gorzelle, B.A.
    Menorah Park Engagement Scale (MPES)
  3. Comfort in Advanced Dementia
    Discomfort Scale for Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type (DS-DAT)
  4. Pain in Dementia
    Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD)
  5. Quality of Family Visits with Residents Who Have Dementia
    Family Visit Scale for Dementia (FAVS-D)

III. Evaluation of Interventions to Alleviate Troublesome Symptoms

  1. Behavioral Symptoms of Dementia
  2. Agitation in Dementia
    Scale for Observation of Agitation in Persons with Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SOAPD)
  3. Rejection of Care in Dementia
    with Ellen K. Mahoney, R.N., Ph.D.
    Resistiveness to Care—Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (RTC-DAT)
  4. Index

Assessment Scales for Advanced Dementia by Health Professions Press

Ladislav Volicer, M.D., Ph.D., FAAN, FGSA, is Courtesy Full Professor at the School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida at Tampa; Visiting Professor at the 3rd Medical Facility, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; and Adjunct Professor at the University of Western Sydney. Dr. Volicer studied medicine at the Charles University in Prague in the former Czechoslovakia, and received a Ph.D. in pharmacology at the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. In 1969, he moved to the United States and began teaching pharmacology and conducting research at the Boston University Medical School. In 1979, Dr. Volicer moved his laboratory to the Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital in Bedford, Massachusetts, and became involved in research on care for individuals with dementia. As a medical director, he established one of the first dementia special care units and introduced the concept of structured palliative care for patients with advanced dementia. The goals of care on this unit were quality of life, dignity, and comfort. He investigated various aspects of dementia care, including behavioral symptoms, medical complications, and eating difficulties. Recognized as an international expert on advanced dementia care, Dr. Volicer has published more than 250 articles and chapters as well as edited four books on clinical management of dementia. He served as past chair of the American Medical Directors Association Ethics Committee and currently serves as section editor for the Journal on Nutrition and Aging as well as on the Editorial Board of the Journal of American Medical Directors Association.

4 reviews for Assessment Scales for Advanced Dementia

  1. Administrator

    “This is an important resource that provides a compilation of high quality scales for use with people who have advanced dementia. The tools included are evidence-based and conceptually consistent with needs and problems of people who are in the advanced stages of a dementing illness. This book is useful for clinicians, those involved in quality improvement, and researcher’s interested in advancing knowledge regarding this understudied population.”
    Christine R. Kovach, PhD, RN, FAAN, FGSA
    Professor, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
    Director of Research, Jewish Home and Care Center of Milwaukee

  2. Administrator

    “Any book written by Volicer and Hurley needs attention – this one is no exception. At a time when there is considerable interest in the palliative care needs of people with advanced dementia, this ‘tour de force’ on the development/psycho-metric testing of 11 tools (all included) will be invaluable to both researchers and practitioners wanting to develop better care.”
    Jo Hockley Ph.D., Senior Research Fellow, University of Edinburgh

  3. Administrator

    “With 15 years’ experience in research, education and clinical practice with persons with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type, I highly recommend this book of assessment scales for this patient population. The editors begin with a review of principles of instrument development and special considerations for research for persons with cognitive deficits that will prepare the reader to evaluate the adequacy of a scale. The authors then apply these principles to assessment scales related to the most critical issues faced by the person with dementia, their family caregivers and staff providers.”
    Kathy J. Horvath, PhD, RN

  4. Administrator

    “In Assessment Scales for Advanced Dementia Volicer and Hurley present a masterly compilation of research scales that have been developed, or have served, their extensive research programme in the field of advanced dementia. The care of people with advanced dementia remains an under-researched area and Volicer and Hurley were among the first to chart unmapped territory. The steadfast purpose of their research programme has been to promote high quality clinical care for people with advanced dementia. This book provides inspiration and a toolkit to support further research and service development improving the care of this most vulnerable group of people. Above all, it is a practical guide to enable potential users to understand what assessment scale will best serve their purpose.

    The best known scale from this collection is PAINAD which is the most widely used observational behavioural pain assessment scale in the world for all the reasons that make the assessment scales in this book so valuable. PAINAD has good psychometric properties and is also simple and user-friendly, which means that it is clinically useful. These qualities of integrity, clarity and simplicity characterise all the assessment scales presented here. The assessment scales range widely; from a measurement of the severity of dementia, to measuring ‘Comfort Assessment in Dying with Dementia’, and hitherto neglected areas such as assessing the ‘Quality of Family Visits with Residents who have Dementia’.

    The need to develop a new research scale sometimes arises from a new understanding of an underlying concept, such as separating agitation and aggression, behaviours which are frequently ‘lumped together’ as a single concept. In teasing out a definition of agitation which does not overlap with ‘aggression’ or ‘rejection of care’, the authors clarify fundamental aspects of the understanding of the behaviours observed in people with advanced dementia who are unable to communicate. Clarifying the complex concept of agitation is important for research and for making decisions that guide clinical care. The use of language affects how behaviour is seen and interpreted by families and healthcare workers.

    This book is a treasure trove for researchers and clinicians seeking to learn how to measure and evaluate the new approaches and interventions that are so desperately needed to relieve suffering.”
    Min Stacpoole
    Clinical Nurse Specialist in Palliative Care for People with Dementia
    St Christopher’s Hospice, United Kingdom

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Assessment Scales for Advanced Dementia contains the following 11 scales, which are available for download with purchase of the book:

Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Scale—Severity Subscale (BANS-S)

End-of-Life in Dementia (EOLD):
Satisfaction with Care—EOLD (SWC-EOLD)
Symptom Management—EOLD (SM-EOLD)
Comfort Assessment in Dying—EOLD (CAD-EOLD)

Quality of Life in Late-Stage Dementia (QUALID)

Menorah Park Engagement Scale (MPES)

Discomfort Scale for Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DS-DAT)

Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD)

Family Visit Scale for Dementia (FAVS-D)

Scale for Observation of Agitation in Persons with Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SOAPD)

Resistiveness to Care—Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (RTC-DAT)